James II of England - Wikipedia
Read a biography about King James II - a Stuart king of England, Scotland and to Roman Catholic and Protestant dissenters, led to conflict with parliament. James II acceded to the throne in because the support of the Tories had A new Parliament assembled, declared that James had effectively abdicated. James II - the last Stuart to be king of England and Ireland and Scotland; Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun of , which was about whether Parliament could exclude Charles II's.
James II (1633 - 1701)
Ultimately, the succession was not altered, but James was convinced to withdraw from all policy-making bodies and to accept a lesser role in his brother's government. Accession to the throne[ edit ] Coronation procession of King James II and Queen Mary of Modena, Charles died in from apoplexy after converting to Catholicism on his deathbed.
There was little initial opposition to his accession, and there were widespread reports of public rejoicing at the orderly succession. Monmouth Rebellion and Argyll's Rising James portrayed c.
A new trial was not commenced because Argyll had previously been tried and sentenced to death. The King confirmed the earlier death sentence and ordered that it be carried out within three days of receiving the confirmation.
Monmouth's rebellion was coordinated with Argyll's, but the former was more dangerous to James. Monmouth had proclaimed himself King at Lyme Regis on 11 June.
James published these papers with a declaration signed by his sign manual and challenged the Archbishop of Canterbury and the whole Anglican episcopal bench to refute Charles's arguments: James advocated repeal of the penal laws in all three of his kingdoms, but in the early years of his reign he refused to allow those dissenters who did not petition for relief to receive it. In response, the Parliament passed an Act that stated, "whoever should preach in a conventicle under a roof, or should attend, either as preacher or as a hearer, a conventicle in the open air, should be punished with death and confiscation of property".
James allowed Catholics to occupy the highest offices of the kingdoms, and received at his court the papal nuncioFerdinando d'Addathe first representative from Rome to London since the reign of Mary I. He dismissed judges who disagreed with him on this matter, as well as the Solicitor General Heneage Finch. Hales, affirmed his dispensing power,  with eleven out of the twelve judges in Godden ruling in favour of the dispensing power.
As part of this tour, he gave a speech at Chester where he said, "suppose He also attempted to force the Protestant Fellows of Magdalen College to elect Anthony Farmera man of generally ill repute who was believed to be secretly Catholic,  as their president when the Protestant incumbent died, a violation of the Fellows' right to elect a candidate of their own choosing.
James was convinced by addresses from Dissenters that he had their support and so could dispense with relying on Tories and Anglicans.
James instituted a wholesale purge of those in offices under the crown opposed to James's plan, appointing new lords-lieutenant and remodelling the corporations governing towns and livery companies. Would they consent to the repeal of the Test Act and the penal laws? Would they assist candidates who would do so? Would they accept the Declaration of Indulgence? During the first three months ofhundreds of those asked the three questions who gave hostile replies were dismissed.
When his brother Charles II concluded an alliance with Spain against France in he reluctantly changed sides, and he commanded the right wing of the Spanish army at the Battle of the Dunes in June He became lord high admiral and did much to maintain the efficiency and improve the organization of the navy.
He also showed considerable interest in colonial ventures; it was on his initiative that New Amsterdam was seized from the Dutch in and renamed New York in his honour. He commanded the fleet in the opening campaigns of the Second and Third Dutch wars.
This was to be his last taste of active military command until In politics he was a strong supporter of the earl of Clarendonwhose daughter Anne he married in September Both before and after marriage he had the reputation of being as great a libertine as his brother. James, in fact, was always more favourable to the Anglican church than was his Protestant brother. James resigned all of his offices in rather than take an anti-Catholic oath imposed by the so-called Test Act and thus made his position known publicly.
Later that year, his first wife having died, he gave further offense by marrying a Roman Catholic princess, Mary of Modena. From to three successive Parliaments strove to exclude James from the succession by statute.
James II - History Learning Site
During this crisis James spent long periods in exile at Brussels and Edinburgh. But owing largely to his own tenacious defense of his rights, the exclusionists were defeated.
The new royalist Parliament that assembled in May voted James a large income, and there seemed to be no reason why he should not in time secure adequate toleration for his coreligionists.King James II (1633-1701)
But unsuccessful rebellions led by the duke of Monmouth in England and the duke of Argyll in Scotland, in the summer ofmarked a turning point in his attitude. The rebellions were put down with great ferocity, the army was considerably increased, and the new regiments were granted to Roman Catholic officers who had had military experience abroad and whose loyalty was undoubted. This last act of policy provoked a quarrel between king and Parliament, which was prorogued in Novembernever to meet again.
In the division between the king and his former allies, the Anglican Tories, deepened. In James intensified his Roman Catholic policy and dismissed his Anglican brothers-in-law the earl of Clarendon and the earl of Rochester.
Magdalen College, Oxfordwas given over for the use of Roman Catholics, and a papal nuncio was officially accredited to St. In April James issued the so-called Declaration of Indulgencesuspending the laws against Roman Catholics and Protestant dissenters alike; in July he dissolved Parliament, and in September he launched an intensive campaign to win over the Protestant dissenters and with their aid secure a new Parliament more amenable to his wishes.