Stalking - Wikipedia
For the prosecution to prove that stalking in NSW has been committed, they must has a broad definition of what behaviour may constitute stalking or intimidation, to a person or to a person with whom he or she has a domestic relationship; Sending a person repeated or unwanted Facebook messages or phone text. Startling Statistics About Stalkers in the U.S. Facebook Stalkers, Statistics, Signs, KnowtheSigns #Stalking A stalker is defined as a person who pursues or Healthy Relationships, Domestic Violence, Digital Citizenship, Occupational. Domestic: stalking a former spouse or paramour. coworker, neighbor, etc. who desires an intimate relationship with the victim, but is rebuffed.
These often involve subscriptions to pornography or ordering sex toys then having them delivered to the victim's workplace. Young people face a particularly high risk of having cyberstalkers try to set up meetings between them.
Using web pages and message boards to incite some response or reaction from their victim. Even police and prosecutors find themselves at risk, as gang members and other organized criminals find out where they live — often to intimidate them into dropping a case. The report, based on supplemental data from the National Crime Victimization Surveyshowed that one in four stalking victims had been cyberstalked as well, with the perpetrators using internet-based services such as email, instant messaging, GPS, or spyware.
The final report stated that approximately 1. Of those, one in four reported experiencing cyberstalking.People Facebook Stalk Their Exes
Kowalski, a social psychologist at Clemson Universitycyberbullying has been shown to cause higher levels of anxiety and depression for victims than normal bullying. Kowalksi states that much of this stems from the anonymity of the perpetrators, which is a common feature of cyberstalking as well. According to a study by Kowalksi, of 3, bullied middle-school students, a quarter had been subjected to a form of harassment online. They patrol Web sites looking for an opportunity to take advantage of people.
It is a form of domestic violenceand experts say its purpose is to control the victim in order to encourage social isolation and create dependency.
Harassers may send repeated insulting or threatening e-mails to their victims, monitor or disrupt their victims' e-mail use, and use the victim's account to send e-mails to others posing as the victim or to purchase goods or services the victim does not want. They may also use the Internet to research and compile personal information about the victim, to use in order to harass him or her.
In one noted case inactress Patricia Arquette quit Facebook after alleged cyberstalking. In her last post, Arquette explained that her security warned her Facebook friends to never accept friend requests from people they do not actually know. Arquette stressed that just because people seemed to be fans did not mean they were safe.
The media issued a statement that Arquette planned to communicate with fans exclusively through her Twitter account in the future. These include publishing lies and doctored photographs, threats of rape and other violence, posting sensitive personal information about victims, e-mailing damaging statements about victims to their employers, and manipulating search engines to make damaging material about the victim more prominent.
As members reinforce each others' beliefs, they fail to see themselves as individuals and lose a sense of personal responsibility for their destructive acts.
In doing so they dehumanize their victims, becoming more aggressive when they believe they are supported by authority figures. Internet service providers and website owners are sometimes blamed for not speaking out against this type of harassment.
In a group of anonymous individuals attacked Sierra, threatening her with rape and strangulation, publishing her home address and Social Security number, and posting doctored photographs of her.
Frightened, Sierra cancelled her speaking engagements and shut down her blog, writing "I will never feel the same. I will never be the same. The stalker is a predator who can wait patiently until vulnerable victims appear, such as women or children, or may enjoy pursuing a particular person, whether personally familiar to them or unknown. The harasser enjoys and demonstrates their power to pursue and psychologically damage the victim. They may engage in live chat harassment or flaming or they may send electronic viruses and unsolicited e-mails.
Conversely, the acts of cyberstalkers may become more intense, such as repeatedly instant messaging their targets. When prosecuted, many stalkers have unsuccessfully attempted to justify their behavior based on their use of public forums, as opposed to direct contact. Once they get a reaction from the victim, they will typically attempt to track or follow the victim's internet activity. Classic cyberstalking behavior includes the tracing of the victim's IP address in an attempt to verify their home or place of employment.
Cyberstalking legislation Legislation on cyberstalking varies from country to country. Cyberstalking and cyberbullying are relatively new phenomena, but that does not mean that crimes committed through the network are not punishable under legislation drafted for that purpose. Although there are often existing laws that prohibit stalking or harassment in a general sense, legislators sometimes believe that such laws are inadequate or do not go far enough, and thus bring forward new legislation to address this perceived shortcoming.
Some research suggests there is a spectrum of what might be called "obsessed following behavior. Some of these people get extruded from their organizations—they may get hospitalized or fired or let go if their behavior is defined in terms of illegal stalking, but many others do good or even excellent work in their organizations and appear to have just one focus of tenacious obsession.
Cyberstalking and Cyberstalking legislation Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cyberstalking. Cyberstalking is the use of computers or other electronic technology to facilitate stalking. In DavisLucks identified a separate category of stalkers who instead of a terrestrial means, prefer to perpetrate crimes against their targeted victims through electronic and online means. Alcohol and physical abuse both played a role in predicting women's cyberstalking and in men, "preoccupied attachment significantly predicted cyber stalking".
Mobbing According to a U. Department of Justice special report  a significant number of people reporting stalking incidents claim that they had been stalked by more than one person, with The report did not break down these cases into numbers of victims who claimed to have been stalked by several people individually, and by people acting in concert.
A question asked of respondents reporting three or more stalkers by polling personnel about whether the stalking was related to co-workers, members of a gang, fraternities, sororities, etc. Census Bureau for the Department of Justice. Over a quarter of all stalking and harassment victims do not know their stalkers in any capacity.
About a tenth responding to the SVS did not know the identities of their stalkers.
Stalking/Cyberstalking | junkgenie.info
False accusations and Persecutory delusions InPathe, Mullen and Purcell wrote that popular interest in stalking was promoting false claims. These have been reported by external observers as being examples of belief systemsas opposed to reports of objective phenomena.
They may reinforce the troubled thinking of the mentally ill and impede treatment. All 'victims' of gang-stalking were judged to be delusional, compared with only 3. There were highly significant differences between the two samples on depressive symptoms, post-traumatic symptomatology and adverse impact on social and occupational function, with the self-declared victims of gang-stalking more severely affected. The authors concluded that "group-stalking appears to be delusional in basis, but complainants suffer marked psychological and practical sequelae.
This is important in the assessment of risk in stalking cases, early referral to psychiatric services and allocation of police resources. There was no significant difference between the incidence of stalking in rural and urban areas. The laws vary slightly from state to state, with Queensland's laws having the broadest scope, and South Australian laws the most restrictive.
Punishments vary from a maximum of 10 years imprisonment in some states, to a fine for the lowest severity of stalking in others. Australian anti-stalking laws have some notable features. Unlike many US jurisdictions they do not require the victim to have felt fear or distress as a result of the behaviour, only that a reasonable person would have felt this way.
In some states, the anti-stalking laws operate extra-territorially, meaning that an individual can be charged with stalking if either they or the victim are in the relevant state.
Most Australian states provide the option of a restraining order in cases of stalking, breach of which is punishable as a criminal offence.
There has been relatively little research into Australian court outcomes in stalking cases, although Freckelton found that in the state of Victoriamost stalkers received fines or community based dispositions. Canada Section of the Criminal Codetitled "criminal harassment",  addresses acts which are termed "stalking" in many other jurisdictions. The provisions of the section came into force in August with the intent of further strengthening laws protecting women. Section has withstood Charter challenges.
The definition is not strict and allows "similar behaviour" to also be classified as stalking. India InIndian Parliament made amendments to the Indian Penal Codeintroducing stalking as a criminal offence.
A man committing the offence of stalking would be liable for imprisonment up to three years for the first offence, and shall also be liable to fine and for any subsequent conviction would be liable for imprisonment up to five years and with fine. Italy Following a series of high-profile incidents that came to public attention in the past years, a law was proposed in Juneand became effective in February D.
Stalking in NSW | Know Your Rights | Go To Court Lawyers
If the perpetrator of the offense is a subject tied to the victim by kinship or that is or has been in the past involved in a relationship with the victim i.
Netherlands In the Wetboek van Strafrecht there is an Article b  that considers stalking as a crime, actually an Antragsdelikt: He, who unlawfully systematically and deliberately intrudes someones personal environment with the intention to enforce the other to do something, not to do something or to tolerate something or to frighten, will be punished because of stalking.
Maximum imprisonment is three years or a fine of the fourth category. Prosecution will only happen when there is a complaint from him, against whom this crime has been committed Antragsdelikt. Romania Article of the Criminal Code states: The act of someone who repeatedly follows, without right or a legitimate interest, a person or his or her home, workplace or other place frequented, thus causing a state of fear.
Making phone calls or communication by means of transmission, which by frequent or continuous use, causes fear to a person. This shall be punished with imprisonment from one to three months or a fine if the case is not a more serious offense.
Criminal action is initiated by prior complaint of the victim.
United Kingdom Already before the enactment of the Protection from Harassment Actthe Malicious Communications Act and the Telecommunications Act now the Communications Act criminalised indecent, offensive or threatening phone calls and the sending of an indecent, offensive or threatening letter, electronic communication or other article to another person.
Before no specific offence existed in England and Wales but in Scotland incidents could be dealt with under pre-existing law with life imprisonment available for the worst offences England and Wales In England and Wales" harassment " was criminalised by the enactment of the Protection from Harassment Actwhich came into force on 16 June It makes it a criminal offence, punishable by up to six months' imprisonment, to make a course of conduct which amounts to harassment of another on two or more occasions.
The court can also issue a restraining order, which carries a maximum punishment of five years' imprisonment if breached. In England and Walesliability may arise in the event that the victim suffers either mental or physical harm as a result of being harassed or slang term stalked see R. Inthe Prime Minister, David Cameronstated that the government intended to make another attempt to create a law aimed specifically at stalking behaviour.
The act of stalking under this section is exemplified by contacting, or attempting to contact, a person by any means, publishing any statement or other material relating or purporting to relate to a person, monitoring the use by a person of the internet, email or any other form of electronic communication, loitering in any place whether public or privateinterfering with any property in the possession of a person or watching or spying on a person.
This created the offence of where a person's conduct amounts to stalking and either causes another to fear on at least two occasions that violence will be used against them or conduct that causes another person serious alarm or distress which has a substantial effect on their usual day to day activities. Scotland In Scotlandbehaviour commonly described as stalking was already prosecuted as the Common Law offence of breach of the peace not to be confused with the minor English offence of the same description before the introduction of the statutory offence against s.
Provision is made under the Protection from Harassment Act against stalking to deal with the civil offence i. Victims of stalking may sue for interdict against an alleged stalker, or a non-harassment order, breach of which is an offence. Congressman Ed Royce introduced the law in Within three years  thereafter, every state in the United States followed suit to create the crime of stalking, under different names such as criminal harassment or criminal menace.
The Driver's Privacy Protection Act DPPA was enacted in in response to numerous cases of a driver's information being abused for criminal activity, with prominent examples including the Saldana and Schaeffer stalking cases.