munitions, while Saudi Arabia has admitted to just one attack, in .. At the annual meeting of the Convention on Conventional Weapons news//01/14/syria -army-using-new-type-cluster-munition. 72 RBK PTAB cluster bombs and 27, submunitions and 53 BME AR and. More than the other regions, population is high in Al-Riyadh, Makkah authorities in the Kingdom are (i) meeting the increasing demand for services due . Al-Abdulkareem and Ballal ) – Ar-Riyad (Al-Riyad Region), Jeddah, . sector may also influence the decision to rent houses (Al-Jassem ). The capital city, Riyadh (Ar-Riyad), had a population of 5,, in that year. .. the royal family to four-year terms on this body, which held its first meeting on 29 Consultative Council; in women were appointed to a fifth of the Council households are increasingly the norm, relatives continue to cluster together.
Yemen participated in two meetings of the Oslo Process that produced the convention Lima in May and Belgrade in October and expressed its support for work to prohibit cluster munitions. It is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons. Production, transfer, and stockpiling Yemen is not known to have produced or exported cluster munitions.
Evidence that came to light in and detailed below indicates that Yemen likely used RBK cluster bombs inindicating that it may have stockpiled cluster munitions in the past and possibly continues to do so. A subsequent research visit by HRW to al-Amar confirmed the use of cluster munitions, including the presence of remnants.
HRW found these cluster munitions were used within meters of villages in one attack, in possible violation of US law. It also found that some of the cluster munitions malfunctioned as their submunitions did not disperse from the canister or dispersed but did not explode. On 2 JulyAbdulrahman Alrazhi tweeted a photograph showing a child holding two M77 submunitions from a ground-launched M26 rocket and stated that the munitions had been used in his district of Razeh in Saada. Estimates of the population in other major metropolitan areas were as follows: Jeddah, the principal port, 3,; and Mecca Makkahcontaining Islam 's holiest shrine, 1, Immigration of professionals, technicians, and others from the surrounding Arab states and growing numbers from outside the region have been spurred by the development of the oil industry and by the lack of adequately trained and educated Saudi personnel.
Palestinian Arabsdisplaced by the establishment of the state of Israel, are the chief immigrant group. After the Gulf War93, Iraqis were granted temporary asylum. Since then, 60, Iraqis have been returned under the prisoner of war exchange. By April20, had resettled in 33 different countries, 3, had voluntarily repatriated, and 9, were still in camps in Saudi Arabia. The total number of noncitizens living in the country in was 5, InHuman Rights Watch, concerned with the treatment of foreign workers, estimated that there were 1—1.
Inthe labor force was 6.
By the end ofthere wererefugees and asylum seekers in Saudi Arabia. With asylum seekers that year, the primary origin of this groundswell of refugees was Palestine, a trend following the beginning of the Iraq War. Inthe net migration rate was an estimated Divisions are based mainly on tribal affiliation or descent; the primary distinction is between groups with a tradition of being sedentary agriculturalists or traders, and the Bedouins, who have a tradition of nomadic pastoralism.
The two groups traditionally have been antagonistic. There has been some loosening of tribal ties, however, caused by rapid economic development. Admixtures of TurksIranians, Indonesians, Pakistanis, Indians, various African groups, and other non-Arab Muslim peoples appear in the Hijaz, mostly descendants of pilgrims to Mecca. Local variations in pronunciation do not prevent oral communication between people from opposite sections of the Arabian Peninsula. The language is written in a cursive script from right to left.
The 28 letters of the alphabet have initial, medial, and terminal forms; short vowels are seldom indicated. Most businesspeople and merchants in oil-producing areas and commercial centers understand English. Government correspondence must be written in Arabic. Most other Saudis are Shia Muslims.
The holy city of Mecca is the center of Islam and the site of the sacred Ka'bah sanctuary, toward which all Muslims face at prayer. A pilgrimage to Mecca is one of the five basic obligations of Islam and is incumbent upon every Muslim who is physically and financially able to perform it. Jews have not been allowed to enter the country since the establishment of the state of Israel inexcept under special circumstances.
There is no religious freedom within the country. The government claims that the Holy Koran Quran and the Sunna tradition of the Prophet are the country's constitution.
Journal of Chemistry
As such, the government strictly controls all religious activities. The public worship of non-Muslim faiths is prohibited. While non-Muslim foreigners are theoretically permitted to worship privately, the guidelines that distinguish between public and private worship are ambiguous, leading to severe restrictions on non-Muslim worship. Proselytizing of non-Muslim religions is illegal and conversion of Muslims to other faiths is a capital offense.
Bythere werekm 91, mi of highway, of which 44, km 27, mi were paved. A new highway connects Saudi Arabia with Jordan, and a causeway completed in offers a direct connection with Bahrain. Inthere were 2, passenger cars and 1, commercial vehicles registered for use.
Most within-country freight is hauled by truck. As ofrailroad lines totaled 1, km mi of standard-gauge track. Inthere were an estimated airports.
As ofa total of 73 had paved runways, and there were also six heliports. The government-owned Saudi Arabian Airlines Saudia operates regular domestic and foreign flights to major cities. Because of the large distances that separate the main cities, air travel is preferred within the kingdom.
Inabout Jeddah, on the Red Sea, is the chief port of entry for Muslim pilgrims going to Mecca. Saudi Arabia has the largest seaport network in the Near East, with eight major ports with piers and three smaller ports. The traditional dhow is still used for coastal trade. Towns were established at various oases and along caravan routes. During the 7th century ad, followers of Muhammad expanded beyond the Mecca-Medina region and within a century had conquered most of the Mediterranean region between Persia in the east and Spain in the west.
Although Arabs were dominant in many parts of the Muslim world and there was a great medieval flowering of Arab civilization, the peninsula itself except for the holy cities of Mecca and Medina declined in importance and remained virtually isolated for almost a thousand years.
The foundations of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were laid in the 18th century by the fusion of the military power of the Sa'ud family and Wahhabism, an Islamic puritan doctrine preached by Muhammad bin 'Abd al-Wahhab. ByNajd and Al-Ahsa were occupied. A long struggle —18 finally resulted in Saudi defeat.
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During that time, Sa'ud died, and his son, 'Abdallah r. When international conditions forced Muhammad 'Ali to withdraw his occupation forces inthe Saudis embarked upon a policy of reconquest. Under Faisal Faysal, r. Hijaz remained under the control of the sharifs of Mecca until After Faisal's death, conflict between his sons led to a decline in the family's fortunes.
Taking advantage of these quarrels, the Ibn-Rashids, a former Saudi vassal family, gained control of Najd and conquered Riyadh. The Saudi family fled to Kuwait in At a decisive battle inthe Rashidi power was broken. Inthe Saudis again brought Al-Ahsa under their control, and in DecemberIbn-Sa'ud signed a treaty with the British that placed Saudi foreign relations under British control in return for a sizable subsidy.
Warfare broke out again in Arabia inwhen Hussein ibn'Ali Husayn ibn-'Alithe sharif of Mecca, who had become an independent king, attacked the Saudis. Hussein was defeated, and Ibn-Sa'ud annexed 'Asir. Inhe finally rid Arabia of the Rashids, and byhe had consolidated his kingdom by occupying the districts west and north of Ha'il. Hussein of Mecca provoked another conflict with Ibn-Sa'ud in March by proclaiming himself caliph.
This increase in Ibn-Sa'ud's territory was acknowledged by the British in a treaty of 20 May that annulled the agreement and recognized his independence.
On 22 Septemberthe various parts of the realm were amalgamated into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with much the same boundaries that exist today. With the discovery of oil in the s, the history of Saudi Arabia was irrevocably altered.
Reserves have proved vast—about one-fourth of the world's total—and production, begun in earnest after World War IIhas provided a huge income, much of it expended on infrastructure and social services.
Saudi Arabia's petroleum derived wealth has considerably enhanced the country's influence in world economic and political forums. This move had stunning consequences for the world economy and also caused a dramatic upsurge in Saudi Arabia's wealth and power.
Since the s, the government has regulated its petroleum production to stabilize the international oil market and has used its influence as the most powerful moderate member of OPEC to restrain the more radical members. Political life in Saudi Arabia remained basically stable in the last third of the 20th century, despite several abrupt changes of leadership.
The geochemistry of groundwater is dominated by redox processes occurring at the sediment-water interface. Adsorption capacity of the mineral surfaces also depends on geochemical parameters, such as pH, electrical conductivity ECionic composition, and mineral type.
Thus hydrogeochemical characteristics, such as the oxidation state of the mineral phases, and the associated cofactors affecting arsenic-containing solid phases, are responsible for arsenic mobilization. Aquifers with high arsenic content are characterized by high concentrations of bicarbonate, high pH and dissolved iron under reducing conditions and by sulfate, low pH, and iron precipitate under oxic conditions [ 89 ].
Arsenic as a redox sensitive contaminant is proposed to obtain mobility in aquifers mainly by dissolution of Fe oxides of As into the aqueous phases [ 1011 ]. This process is especially shown to be biologically mediated in the presence of organic matter [ 12 ].
There has also been enormous amount of research done in relation to elevated concentrations of As in geothermal fields and hot springs. High levels of As, B, Fe, Mn, and Sb occur due to mixing of cold waters with geothermal fluids and are often associated with a high total dissolved solids TDS [ 13 ].
The Saudi Arabian aquifers are formations existing in the Arabian shield and the Arabian shelf of the quaternary and cenozoic age. These are dozens of hot springs scattered across the country and are sometimes the subject of exploration for renewal energy [ 14 ].
A study carried by Bazuhair et al. Studies of arsenic hydrogeochemistry and mobilization often involve evaluation of numerous factors, and these factors can be analyzed with multivariate statistics to elucidate underlying processes. Processes like carbonate dissolution, silicate weathering, and ion exchange were found to control major-ion chemistry by using the geochemical modeling and principal component analysis [ 16 ]. Geothermal waters from geothermal wells and hot springs were classified into two factors, one indicating the reservoir temperature distribution and the other indicating hydrogeochemical processes resulting from the CO2 pressure decrease in geothermal water during its ascent towards the ground surface [ 18 ].
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Estimation of total arsenic and inorganic speciation for surface and groundwater samples was performed by using principal component analysis, cluster analysis, metal-to-metal correlations, and linear regression analyses [ 19 ]. Furthermore, relevant data on trace elements Fe, Mn, Li, and Sb to delineate arsenic geochemistry in the study area is also collected.
The large dataset is subjected to multivariate statistics, using Principle Component Analysis PCA and Cluster Analysis CA techniques to determine similarities and dissimilarities in hydrogeochemical properties, and to make predictions about the As mobilization processes in aquifers of Al-Kharj region.
Materials and Methods 2. Al-Kharj is one of the five major agricultural regions in the country, surrounded by Wadi Dawasir, Hofuf, Gassim and Taif in the southwest, northeast, northwest, and west, respectively, of the region.