Reconquista | Iberian history | junkgenie.info
In the end, assertions about the tolerance of Islamic Córdoba tell us more . in the face of Europe's increasingly fraught relationship with Islam. After the end of the Second Republic (–), a brief interlude during .. The terrorist attacks of placed the relationship of Spain with Islam in the. 24 A. RECONQUISTA: END OF CONVIVENCIA. . which will be better for understanding the relationship between Jews- Christians-Muslims in medieval Spain.
Not until and the Council of Clermont did the Reconquista amalgamate the conflicting concepts of a peaceful pilgrimage and armed knight-errantry. But the papacy left no doubt about the heavenly reward for knights fighting for Christ militia Christi: The pope promised them the same indulgences that he had promised to those who chose to join the First Crusade.
Later military orders such as the Order of SantiagoMontesaOrder of Calatravaand the Knights Templar were founded or called to fight in Iberia. The Popes called the knights of Europe to join the effort to destroy the Muslim states of the peninsula. The large territories awarded to military orders and nobles were the origin of the latifundia in today's Andalusia and Extremadura in Spain, and Alentejo in Portugal.
Military culture in medieval Iberia[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message In an atmosphere of constant conflict, warfare and daily life were strongly intertwined during this period. Small, lightly equipped armies reflected the need for society to be on constant alert. These forces were capable of moving long distances in short times, allowing a quick return home after sacking a target.
Battles were mainly waged between clans, expelling intruder armies or sacking expeditions. In the context of the relative isolation of the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of Europe, and the contact with Moorish culture, geographical and cultural differences necessitated the use of military strategies, tactics, and equipment that were markedly different from those found in the rest of western Europe during this period.
Medieval Iberian armies mainly comprised two types of forces: Infantry only went to war if needed, which was not frequent.
Cavalry and infantry[ edit ] Iberian cavalry tactics involved knights approaching the enemy, throwing javelinsthen withdrawing to a safe distance before commencing another assault.
Once the enemy formation was sufficiently weakened, the knights charged with thrusting spears lances did not arrive in Hispania until the 11th century. There were three types of knights caballeros: Royal knights were mainly nobles with a close relationship with the king, and thus claimed a direct Gothic inheritance.
Royal knights were equipped in the same manner as their Gothic predecessors: Noble knights came from the ranks of the infanzones or lower nobles, whereas the commoner knights were not noble but were wealthy enough to afford a horse.
Uniquely in Europe, these horsemen comprised a militia cavalry force with no feudal links, being under the sole control of the king or the count of Castile because of fueros charters with the crown. Both noble and common knights wore padded armour and carried javelins, spears and round-tasselled shields influenced by Moorish shieldsas well as a sword. The peones were peasants who went to battle in service of their feudal lord.
Poorly equipped, with bows and arrows, spears and short swords, they were mainly used as auxiliary troops. Their function in battle was to contain the enemy troops until the cavalry arrived and to block the enemy infantry from charging the knights. The longbowthe composite bowand the crossbow were the basic types of bows and were especially popular in the infantry.
Armour was typically made of leather, with iron scales; full coats of chain mail were extremely rare and horse barding completely unknown. Head protections consisted of a round helmet with nose protector influenced by the designs used by Vikingswho attacked during the 8th and 9th centuries and a chain mail headpiece.
Shields were often round or kidney-shaped, except for the kite-shaped designs used by the royal knights. Usually adorned with geometric designs, crosses or tassels, shields were made out of wood and had a leather cover. Isolated pockets of resistance remained, of which only the Nasrid emirate of Granada amounted to much, and it was effectively a vassal state of Castile. Sporadic Nasrid border raids prompted punitive responses short of invasion. The Portuguese were more aggressive, taking the key North African trading hub of Ceuta inthus kicking off the era of European colonization.
Granada held on as the sole remaining Muslim emirate on an otherwise unified Christian peninsula. For Ferdinand and Isabella it was a boil to be lanced. The marriage of Isabella, heiress to the throne of Castile, to Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Aragon, was a decisive catalyst in both the final defeat of the Moors and Spanish unification.
In the royal couple established the Inquisition, intended to ensure Catholic orthodoxy in the realm. Opposing Muslim factions chose sides, and the ensuing civil war saw the emirate fatally weakened.
Exploiting the Nasrid rift, Ferdinand and Isabella sought to win over Boabdil to their cause, offering him a truce in exchange for tribute payments and a pledge to make war against his own father. Consenting to the humiliating terms, Boabdil returned to Granada to foment trouble and fight both his father and uncle for the emirate. Muslim battled Muslim, and amid the chaos the dominoes began toppling.
The fortress cities of Marbella and Ronda capitulated. Too late the treacherous Boabdil fell out with his patrons, Ferdinand and Isabella, defected and decided to oppose the dual monarchs, seeking redemption as some sort of Granadian patriot. Holed up inside Granada, Boabdil appealed for aid from the Muslim powers in Egypt and North Africa, but without success.
It was nigh on impossible to provide succor to Granada anyway, as it had been cut off from the sea. Operations began in April Eight months of misery, decay and disorder ensued before the city fell to the Spanish on Jan. Leaving Granada with his family and retainers, Boabdil personally delivered the keys of the city to Ferdinand. Within moments royal bearers raised a great silver cross and the Castilian banner in triumph from the watchtower of the Alhambra, and the victorious royal couple wept for joy.
A personal defeat for the emir, the fall of Granada also marked the end of years of Moorish rule in Iberia. Muslims immediately went into mourning, regarding it as a catastrophe of epic proportions. Spanish Catholics, on the other hand, hailed it as the most blessed day in their history. With the Reconquista completed, so too ended threats of invasion from Moorish North Africa.
According to the generous treaty terms, Muslims who remained in Iberia would be afforded respect with regard to their religion, culture and property—but such promises proved to be so many words.
Middle Ages for Kids: Reconquista and Islam in Spain
After turning over the keys of Granada to Ferdinand, Boabdil took a last glance at the city before riding into exile. Practicing Jews perhaps as many as 40, were expelled by royal edict inwhile Moors who refused to convert were shown the door in Castile in The fallout continued for decades.
As late as Khayr ad-Din, a notorious Ottoman corsair and admiral known to Europeans as Barbarossa, evacuated tens of thousands of Moors from Andalusia. The irony of the expulsion of the Moors from the Iberian Peninsula is that while late medieval Europe was largely rural and impoverished, Moorish Iberia had been a flourishing economic and cultural center at the cutting edge of science, philosophy and medicine.
Indeed, in Castile the Muslims would be protected for their economic value. External influences had long informed Spanish culture, and the Muslim scholastic tradition continued to predominate, translations from Arabic to Latin making Iberia the conduit by which knowledge permeated the West.
In theory, all Muslims are equal, but in Al-Andalus, they were divided according to many differences such as racial origin, wealth, learning and social classes.
The principal division was 22 Ibid, p. They became own large land, towns and fortress. They joined to social and economic life and were interested in trade, industry and agriculture with Jews and Christians. Moreover, they attempted to spread their religion and language. Shortly, in Al-Andalus, Muslims created a harmonious society with Jews and Mozarabs for contribution to every aspect of life.
The Reconquista of the Mosque of Córdoba
It is very difficult to give the exact number of Muslims who lived under Christians rule. However, with the fall of Toledo ina large number of Muslims started to live among Christian majority. These Muslims were called as Moros, and some of them converted to Christianity. Yet, the great majority of these Muslims continued to live their religion under Christians.
Basically, they were allowed to worship, own their customs and local government. Mostly, they engaged with agriculture, arts, architecture and commerce.
USA, p. They improved good relations with Christian rulers in Castile and took places in administration. Briefly, in Medieval Spain, the people of three religions achieved to live together in peace and create a social convivencia by working together, living in same quarter, and being friends. Although their statue was not equal, they did not keep away from joining to every parts of life.
- Reconquest of Spain
Their life standards were much better when compared with other parts of Europe. For this reason, it will be very weak work of convivencia without touching to religious attitudes in Spain. To give a brief back ground, from the beginning of Islam the history between Christians and Muslims witnessed many wars. The reason behind this conflict based on economic, politics and religious interests. Yet the main reason is religion. Scholar, Norman Daniel, touch on this subject in his work "Islam and the West.
Moreover, they thought that Qur'an is forgery because it is a complex dicta without style and content. Moreover, this religious tolerance or religious convivencia could be seen not only among community, but also it was common in ruling class, both in Al-Andalus and in Christian north of Spain. In addition, it is the fact that Christian kings and Muslim rulers embraced the three communities.
At this point, Alfonso VI, the conqueror of Toledo, will be the best example. After fall of Toledo, Christians, Jews and Muslims continued to live with each other in a peace.
Alfonso VI benefited from skills of Jews and Muslims. Moreover, when he was 28 Chejne, G. When he conquered Valencia, he took care of problems of his Muslim subject.
When he was exiled from Alfonso's court inhe was accepted with a great honour and respect by al- Muktadir, the ruler of Taifa state of Saragossa and he fought for Muslim rulers of Saragossa.
There are a lot of evidences which demonstrate that people of three religions showed a significant degree of tolerance towards each other and allowed both religious conversion and intermarriage between Muslim man with a Christian and Jewish women. People from different religions joined economic activity by respecting beliefs of each other.
When Jews and Muslims went into a partnership for a store and its profit, they agreed on sharing profits according to their respective to Sabbaths that is Jew took all profits on Friday and Muslim took it on Saturday. From toEdinburgh University Press: Great Britain,p. Brill,p. In Toledo, this was very common and people of these three religions shared their religious rites. While Jews sponsored Christians baptism, at the same time Christian reciprocated at circumcisions.
In addition Muslims could go to the celebration of Mass with their Christians friends, and it was not unusual to listen Muslims musicians in Christian churches at that time. Or it was very common to see Christian or Jewish children living with non-Christian people for years.
The important point was the attitudes of people towards each other, and they achieved religious convivencia from eight century to the end of the eleventh century by respect and tolerate each other. After the conquest of Iberian Peninsula, the Muslim rulers with the contributions to the local populations, Jews and Christians, started to developed cities in term of architecture. They introduced the Arabic architectural style and at the same time, they were influenced from architecture of local style.
So this led to be created an architecture style which contained some elements from Arabic, Byzantine, and Vizigothic architecture. They built a lot of libraries, mosques, bridges, gardens and palaces; and some of them such as the Mosque of Cordoba, the Giralda, the Alcazar at Seville and the Alhambra of Granada, were masterpieces of Islamic architecture which had no parallels in Europe at that time.
Many Christian churches and Jewish synagogues were decorated with Muslim inscriptions. If we look at intellectual interaction, it can be seen that this interaction showed itself in language and literature. Firstly, the majority of population was bilingual, and many Jews learned and spoke Hebrew, Arabic and Latin. In addition, this interaction affected many Spanish words; many modern Spanish and Portuguese names of agricultural products come from Arabic, such as aceituna from al-zaytuna, azucar from al-sukkar and arroz from al- ruz.
Moreover, it can be seen that some technical terms have been influenced from Arabic language like noria from naura or acequia from al-saqiya. One of these rulers was Al-Hakam II. He created a court which was filled with philosophers, poets, artists and he built a library included as many asvolumes. Under his sponsorship, both the Qur'an and the Talmud were translated into Latin.
Also we know that a Spanish Christian, Ishaq b. Valezquez made an Arabic translation of the Gospels in the year AD. This group produced the Alfonsine Tables in CE which would be a guide in Spain until emerging of ideas of Copernicus. He was a poet who wrote about wine, women and song in the best Arab manner.
The other one was Yahuda Halevi He wrote several poems in Arabic. One of the most important points of cultural interaction was economic developments.
In the last centuries of the Roman Empire, economy in Western Europe declined. However, the conquest of peninsula by Muslims, and cooperation with local population led to economy developed. Firstly, Muslims introduced three-crop rotation and some exotic plants such as rice and sugar.
They produced many kinds of vegetables and fruits, and some products such as olives, figs, peaches, apricots and cucumbers which were unknown in rest of Europe.
This all were achieved by contributions of Muslims, Christians and especially Jews. They were willing to learn these new agricultural techniques and products. These systems had influenced over the irrigation systems of Valencia and Murcia to the present days. Moreover, this cultural convivencia spread to not only Al-Andalus, but also to Christian north of Spain, Portugal and even to Sicily.
However, the Reconquista is not a single war, rather it is a long period of wars which started with the Arab conquest in and finished with re-conquest of Granada by Christians in This long period of wars has been very important for scholars who study on convivencia, history of Iberian Peninsula and national identity of Spanish. Because of being very important for scholars, the debates over Reconquista have been continued over half a year.
Many scholars have started to speak on Reconquista and its problems. They have discussed about some conflicts such as was the Reconquista real or a myth? Which time period of history of Medieval Iberian Peninsula can be defined as period of Reconquista? Is it appropriate to accept Reconquista as crusade? Before examining these debates more deeply, it will be useful to give information about time period that idea of Reconquista took place in historiography of early middle Ages.
The idea of Reconquista can be dated to the 9th century. However, the first problem for historians starts at this point: Does emerging the word of Reconquista in the texts from 9th century mean that the idea of Reconquista have been started to implement since that time?
So, it cannot be said that ninth century chronicles created the ideology of Reconquista. He argued that in the eleventh century and early twelfth century were a time period that many dramatic changes occurred in Spain and in Portugal. With these changes, the possibility of Reconquista came real and the ideology of Reconquista was first born.
Another problem in historiography of Reconquista is about the origin of idea. Many scholars had tried to answer the question: Did this idea of Reconquista create, or invent or adopt from somewhere? Some scholars believed that this idea of Reconquista came from Spanish Christians. Then scholars started to think about some questions: Was the crusading activity limited to East or Jerusalem?
Can we define the wars against Muslims in 49 Ibid, p. These questions led scholars to study the concept of Reconquista more deeply and many of these scholars improved different perspective for the problem. Some historians have preferred to divide the wars of Reconquista into time periods and started to talk that the eleventh century wars can be accepted as pre-crusade and twelfth century wars as crusade. One of these scholars who dealt with this matter was Paul Rousset.
He studied on the characters of these wars and argued that these wars had some similarities with crusade. Like crusade they had papal bull, had participant from other nation and they were Christians offensive against Islam. But, on the contrary, these wars did not carry the spirit of crusade, because they did not have crusading indulgence and did not wear the cross.