Voyages of Christopher Columbus - Wikipedia
Christopher Columbus' crew on the first voyage were from small towns in from four men took up the offer: one who had killed a man in a fight, and three of his. Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who completed four The name Christopher Columbus is the Anglicisation of the Latin . That meeting also proved unsuccessful, in part because not long afterwards . Half of his crew went ashore to say prayers in a chapel to give thanks for having. Christopher Columbus was an Italian explorer who stumbled upon the Americas Though he did not really “discover” the New World—millions of people already . On August 3, , Columbus and his crew set sail from Spain in three ships: .
The second and third voyages The gold, parrots, spices, and human captives Columbus displayed for his sovereigns at Barcelona convinced all of the need for a rapid second voyage. Colonization and Christian evangelization were openly included this time in the plans, and a group of friars shipped with him. The presence of some 1, salaried men with perhaps private investors and a small troop of cavalry are testimony to the anticipations for the expedition.
Pierpont Morgan, Here was a clear sign that Taino resistance had gathered strength. More fortified places were rapidly built, including a city, founded on January 2 and named La Isabela for the queen. In March Columbus explored the Cibao Valley thought to be the gold-bearing region of the island and established the fortress of St. The admiral decided that Hispaniola was indeed the biblical land of Sheba and that Cuba was the mainland of Cathay. The following year he began a determined conquest of Hispaniola, spreading devastation among the Taino.
The admiral departed La Isabela for Spain on March 10,leaving his brothers, Bartholomew and Diego, in charge of the settlement. Spain was then at war with France and needed to buy and keep its alliances; moreover, the yield from the second voyage had fallen well short of the investment.
Christopher Columbus - 1st Voyage
Portugal was still a threat, though the two nations had divided the Atlantic conveniently between themselves in the Treaty of Tordesillas June 7, According to the treaty, Spain might take all land west of a line drawn from pole to pole leagues—i.
But what about the other side of the world, where West met East? Also, there might be a previously undiscovered antipodean continent. Who, then, should be trusted to draw the line there?
Ferdinand and Isabella therefore made a cautious third investment. It was clear now that Columbus was expected both to find great prizes and to establish the flag of Spain firmly in the East.
Certainly he found prizes, but not quite of the kind his sponsors required. On June 21 the provision ships left Gomera for Hispaniola, while the explorers headed south for the Cape Verde Islands.
After stopping at Trinidad named for the Holy Trinitywhose protection he had invoked for the voyageColumbus entered the Gulf of Paria and planted the Spanish flag on the Paria Peninsula in Venezuela. It is hard to explain exactly what the trouble was.
It may be that these problems had intensified, but the Columbus family must be held at least partly responsible, intent as it was on enslaving the Taino and shipping them to Europe or forcing them to mine gold on Hispaniola.
Bobadilla ruled against the Columbus family when he arrived in Hispaniola.
During that return journey Columbus composed a long letter to his sovereigns that is one of the most extraordinary he wrote, and one of the most informative. One part of its exalted, almost mystical, quality may be attributed to the humiliations the admiral had endured humiliations he compounded by refusing to allow the captain of the La Gorda to remove his chains during the voyage and another to the fact that he was now suffering severely from sleeplessness, eyestrain, and a form of rheumatoid arthritiswhich may have hastened his death.
Inthe Columbus family moved to Savonawhere Domenico took over a tavern. Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but, instead, from the Aragon region of Spain  or from Portugal. Later, he allegedly made a trip to Chiosan Aegean island then ruled by Genoa. He docked in BristolEngland  and GalwayIreland. Inhe was possibly in Iceland. Columbus based himself in Lisbon from to Between andColumbus traded along the coasts of West Africareaching the Portuguese trading post of Elmina at the Guinea coast in present-day Ghana.
He returned to Portugal to settle her estate and take his son Diego with him. Columbus recognized the boy as his offspring. Columbus entrusted his older, legitimate son Diego to take care of Beatriz and pay the pension set aside for her following his death, but Diego was negligent in his duties. According to historian Edmund MorganColumbus was not a scholarly man.
Yet he studied these books, made hundreds of marginal notations in them and came out with ideas about the world that were characteristically simple and strong and sometimes wrong, For example, part of the argument that he submitted to the Spanish Catholic Monarchs when he sought their support for his proposed expedition to reach the Indies by sailing west was based on his reading of the Second Book of Esdras Ezra: Towards the end of his life, he produced a Book of Prophecies in which his career as an explorer is interpreted in the light of Christian eschatology and of apocalypticism.
With the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks inthe land route to Asia became much more difficult and dangerous. Portuguese navigators tried to find a sea way to Asia.
Afonso rejected his proposal.
Meanwhile, in the s, the Columbus brothers had picked up Toscanelli's suggestion and proposed a plan to reach the Indies by sailing west across the "Ocean Sea", i. However, Dias's discovery had shifted the interests of Portuguese seafaring to the southeast passagewhich complicated Columbus's proposals significantly. Christian writers whose works clearly reflect the conviction that the Earth is spherical include Saint Bede the Venerable in his Reckoning of Time, written around AD In Columbus's time, the techniques of celestial navigationwhich use the position of the sun and the stars in the sky, together with the understanding that the Earth is a sphere, had long been in use by astronomers and were beginning to be implemented by mariners.
These measurements were widely known among scholars, but confusion about the old-fashioned units of distance in which they were expressed led to some debate about the size of the Earth. He also believed that Japan which he called "Cipangu", following Marco Polo was much larger, farther to the east from China "Cathay"and closer to the equator than it is, and that there were inhabited islands even farther to the east than Japan, including the mythical Antilliawhich he thought might lie not much farther to the west than the Azores.
In this, he was influenced by the ideas of Florentine astronomer, Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelliwho corresponded with Columbus in  and who also defended the feasibility of a westward route to Asia. The true figure is now known to be vastly larger: Most European navigators reasonably concluded that a westward voyage from Europe to Asia was unfeasible. The Catholic Monarchshowever, having completed an expensive war in the Iberian Peninsulawere eager to obtain a competitive edge over other European countries in the quest for trade with the Indies.
Columbus's project, though far-fetched, held the promise of such an advantage. During his first voyage inthe brisk trade winds from the east, commonly called " easterlies ", propelled Columbus's fleet for five weeks, from the Canary Islands to The Bahamas. The precise first land sighting and landing point was San Salvador Island. Instead, Columbus returned home by following the curving trade winds northeastward to the middle latitudes of the North Atlantic, where he was able to catch the " westerlies " that blow eastward to the coast of Western Europe.
There, in turn, the winds curve southward towards the Iberian Peninsula. The corresponding technique for efficient travel in the Atlantic appears to have been exploited first by the Portuguese, who referred to it as the Volta do mar "turn of the sea".
Columbus's knowledge of the Atlantic wind patterns was, however, imperfect at the time of his first voyage. By sailing directly due west from the Canary Islands during hurricane seasonskirting the so-called horse latitudes of the mid-Atlantic, Columbus risked either being becalmed or running into a tropical cycloneboth of which, by chance, he avoided.
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Columbus Ships Crew
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message Columbus offers his services to the King of Portugal; Chodowiecki17th c. He proposed that the king equip three sturdy ships and grant Columbus one year's time to sail out into the Atlantic, search for a western route to the Orientand return.