Lake Tuakitoto - WikiVisually
Historically, the Little Calumet River and the Grand Calumet River were one, the The major tributaries are Deep River and its Turkey Creek sub-tributary, and the . Confluence - Confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda Rivers to produce At the far northeast corner, along County Line Road, Millers most expensive. Its main tributaries are Nant Cwm-du and Nant Cedfyw which enter on its left bank .. River Ogmore - The Ogmore and its tributaries were confined to narrow Confluence - Confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda Rivers to produce the .. In addition eels remain common, and Millers Thumb, Gudgeon, Stone loach. Devprayag (Deva prayāga) is a town and a nagar panchayat (municipality) in Tehri Garhwal district in the state of Uttarakhand, India, and is one of the Panch Prayag (five confluences) of Alaknanda River where Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers meet and take the With this way devotees can reach at Just another temple of Maa Durga in.
Initial settlement was concentrated on the port and city, then expanded, notably to the south-west, the s saw rapid commercial expansion after Gabriel Read discovered gold at Gabriels Gully near Lawrence, and the Central Otago goldrush ensued.
Further gold discoveries at Clyde and on the Arrow River around Arrowtown led to a boom, New Zealands first daily newspaper, the Otago Daily Times, originally edited by Julius Vogel, dates from this period. New Zealands first university, the University of Otago, was founded in as the university in Dunedin. The Province of Southland separated from Otago Province and set up its own Provincial Council at Invercargill inafter difficulties ensued, Otago re-absorbed it in Its territory is included in the region of the old Otago Province which is named after it and is now the territory of the Southland region.
The provincial governments were abolished in when the Abolition of the Provinces Act came into force on 1 Novembertwo in Otago were named after the Scottish independence heroes Wallace and Bruce. From this time the national limelight gradually shifted northwards, beginning in the west, the geography of Otago consists of high alpine mountains.
In this part of Otago glacial activity - both recent and very old - dominates the landscape, with large U shaped valleys and rivers which have high sediment loads, River flows also vary dramatically, with large flood flows occurring after heavy rain 9. It has an population of 14, making it the 27th largest urban area in New Zealand. InQueenstown overtook Oamaru to become the second largest urban area in Otago, the Queenstown-Lakes District has a land area of 8, The region has a resident population of 34, Queenstown is known for its tourism, especially adventure and ski tourism.
European explorers William Gilbert Rees and Nicholas von Tunzelmann were the first non-Maoris to settle the area, many Queenstown streets bear names from the gold mining era and some historic buildings remain. Williams Cottage, the Lake Lodge of Ophir, Queenstown Police Station, the miners and especially the Irish had taken an interest in the ceremony held for a small town called The Cove in Ireland which was renamed to Queenstown in honour of Queen Victoria in They may have had their own ceremony at the intersection of Rees, by 9 and 10 January the town was being reported with the name of Queenstown from several reports written by a correspondent in the Otago Witness on Monday the 5th and Tuesday the 6th.
A resort town, Queenstown boasted adventure tourism activities inskiing and snowboarding, jet boating, whitewater rafting, bungy jumping, mountain biking, skateboarding, tramping, paragliding, sky diving and fly fishing are all popular. Queenstown is a centre for snow sports in New Zealand, with people from all over the country. Cross country skiing is available at the Waiorau Snowfarm, near Cardrona village.
The year-old twin screw coal fired steamer TSS Earnslaw traverses Lake Wakatipu, Queenstown lies close to the centre of a small wine producing region, reputed to be the worlds southernmost. The Two Paddocks vineyard is owned by local actor Sam Neill, neighbouring, historic Arrowtown features restaurants and bars. Confluence — In geography, a confluence is the meeting of two or more bodies of water.
The term is used to describe the meeting of tidal or other non-riverine bodies of water. It is the port and a hub for the regions extensive river system. Osijek, Croatia, is on the bank of the river Drava 25 km upstream of its confluence with the Danube. Belgrade, the capital of Serbia lies at the confluence of the Sava, the Hochelaga Archipelago, including the island and city of Montreal, is located at the confluence of the St.
Winnipeg, Canada, is at the confluence of the Red River, the area is referred to as The Forks by locals, and has been an important trade location for over years. Louis, Missouri, is built just south of the confluence of the Mississippi River and the Missouri River. This merging point is the beginning of the Nile, columbus, Ohio, in the United States is at the confluence of the Scioto and Olentangy rivers.
With a length of 80 kilometres, it is New Zealands longest lake, the lake is also very deep, its floor being below sea level, with a maximum depth of metres. It is at an altitude of metres, towards the end of the Southern Alps.
The general topography is a reversed N shape or dog leg, the Dart River flows into the northern end, the lake then runs south for 30 kilometres before turning abruptly to the east. Twenty kilometres further along, it sharply to the south, reaching its southern end 30 kilometres further south. The lake is drained by the Kawarau River, which flows out from the lakes Frankton Arm,8 km east of Queenstown, until about 18, years ago the Mataura River drained Lake Wakatipu.
The Kingston Flyer follows part of the river bed now blocked by glacial moraine. Queenstown is on the shore of the lake close to eastern end of its middle section.
It has a seiche of period Lake Wakatipu is renowned for its beauty, being surrounded by mountains. The Remarkables mountain range lies along its southeastern edge and it is a popular venue for adventure tourism, with skifields, paragliding, bungy jumping and tramping tracks within easy reach. A vintage steamboat, the TSS Earnslaw regularly plies its waters, several vineyards are nearby in the Gibbston Valley.
Taken literally, Wakatipu would mean growing canoe or possibly growing bay if the original was Whakatipu, the dialect is also known for dropping final vowels, and Wakatipua or Whakatipua have also been recorded historically, as has Wakatapu. A legend says that the bed was formed when a giant ogre. Lake Wakatipu is a habitat for the eel, brown trout, salmon. These and other fish predators such as the pied shag Drainage basin — A drainage basin or catchment area is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
Drainage basins connect into other drainage basins at elevations in a hierarchical pattern, with smaller sub-drainage basins. Other terms used to describe drainage basins are catchment, catchment basin, drainage area, river basin and water basin. This process, which is known as pugmilling, improves the consistency, firing qualities, texture.
From here, the clay can be extruded into a continuous strip and cut with wires. After the forming or cutting, the bricks must be dried, either in the air, in drying sheds. When the bricks have been dried, they must then be fired or burnt in a kiln, to them their final hardness. In the past, clay was transported from the quarry to the brickworks by narrow gauge railway or aerial ropeway. Water pollution — Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies.
This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds, Water pollution affects the entire biosphere — plants and organisms living in these bodies of water.
In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and population, Water pollution is a major global problem which requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels. It has been suggested that pollution is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases.
An estimated people in India die of water related illness every day. About 90 percent of the water in the cities of China is polluted, as ofhalf a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water. In addition to the problems of water pollution in developing countries. The head of Chinas national development agency said in that one quarter the length of Chinas seven main rivers were so poisoned the water harmed the skin.
Natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also cause changes in water quality. Although interrelated, surface water and groundwater have often studied and managed as separate resources. Surface water seeps through the soil and becomes groundwater, conversely, groundwater can also feed surface water sources.
Sources of surface water pollution are generally grouped into two based on their origin. Point source water pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway from a single, identifiable source, examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory, or a city storm drain.
Clean Water Act defines point source for regulatory enforcement purposes, the CWA definition of point source was amended in to include municipal storm sewer systems, as well as industrial storm water, such as from construction sites. Nonpoint source pollution refers to contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source.
NPS pollution is often the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area, a common example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands. Nutrient runoff in storm water from sheet flow over a field or a forest are also cited as examples of NPS pollution. Contaminated storm water washed off of parking lots, roads and highways, however, because this runoff is typically channeled into storm drain systems and discharged through pipes to local surface waters, it becomes a point source 8.
Coal mining — Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground. Coal is valued for its content, and, since the s, has been widely used to generate electricity. Steel and cement industries use coal as a fuel for extraction of iron from iron ore, in the United Kingdom and South Africa a coal mine and its structures are a colliery, a coal mine a pit, the above-ground structures the pit head.
In Australia, colliery generally refers to a coal mine. In the United States colliery has been used to describe a coal mine operation, Coal mining has had many developments over the recent years, from the early days of men tunnelling, digging and manually extracting the coal on carts, to large open cut and long wall mines. Mining at this scale requires the use of draglines, trucks, conveyors, hydraulic jacks, small-scale mining of surface deposits dates back thousands of years.
For example, in Roman Britain, the Romans were exploiting most of the major coalfields by the late 2nd century AD. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in the 18th century and later spread to continental Europe, international trade expanded rapidly when coal-fed steam engines were built for the railways and steamships.
Until the late nineteenth century coal was mined using a pick and shovel. Coal-cutting machines were introduced in the s, bysurface mining was conducted with steam shovels designed for coal mining. The most economical method of extraction from coal seams depends on the depth and quality of the seams. Coal mining processes are differentiated by whether they operate on the surface or underground, many coals extracted from both surface and underground mines require washing in a coal preparation plant.
Surface mining and deep underground mining are the two methods of mining. Coal that occurs at depths of to ft are usually deep mined, for example, some western U. Coals occurring below ft are usually deep mined, However, there are open pit mining operations working on coal seams up to — feet below ground level, for instance Tagebau Hambach in Germany. When coal seams are near the surface, it may be economical to extract the coal using open cut mining methods, open cast coal mining recovers a greater proportion of the coal deposit than underground methods, as more of the coal seams in the strata may be exploited.
Sudbury River - WikiVisually
In this mining method, explosives are first used in order to break through the surface or overburden, the overburden is then removed by draglines or by shovel and truck.
Once the coal seam is exposed, it is drilled, fractured, the coal is then loaded onto large trucks or conveyors for transport to either the coal preparation plant or directly to where it will be used 9. Cosmetics — Cosmetics, also known as make-up, are substances or products used to enhance or alter the appearance or fragrance of the body. Many cosmetics are designed for use of applying to the face and they are generally mixtures of chemical compounds, some being derived from natural sources, and some being synthetics.
Common cosmetics include lipstick, mascara, eye shadow, foundation, rouge, skin cleansers and skin lotions, shampoo, hairstyling products, perfume and this broad definition includes any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category, Egyptian women and men also used makeup.
They were very fond of eyeliner and eyeshadows in dark colors including blue, red, Ancient Sumerian men and women were possibly the first to invent and wear lipstick, about 5, years ago. They crushed gemstones and used them to decorate their faces, mainly on the lips, also around BC to BC, women in the ancient Indus Valley Civilization applied red tinted lipstick to their lips for face decoration.
Ancient Egyptians extracted red dye from fucus-algin,0. Six thousand year old relics of the hollowed out tombs of the Ancient Egyptian pharaohs are discovered, according to one source, early major developments include, Kohl used by ancient Egypt as a protective of the eye kohl Castor oil used by ancient Egypt as a protective balm. Skin creams made of beeswax, olive oil, and rose water, vaseline and lanolin in the nineteenth century.
The Ancient Greeks also used cosmetics as the Ancient Romans did, Cosmetics are mentioned in the Old Testament, such as in 2 Kings 9,30, where Jezebel painted her eyelids—approximately BC—and in the book of Esther, where beauty treatments are described. One of the most popular traditional Chinese medicines is the fungus Tremella fuciformis, used as a beauty product by women in China, the fungus reportedly increases moisture retention in the skin and prevents senile degradation of micro-blood vessels in the skin, reducing wrinkles and smoothing fine lines.
Cosmetic use was frowned upon at many points in Western history, for example, in the 19th century, Queen Victoria publicly declared make-up improper, vulgar, and acceptable only for use by actors. During the sixteenth century, the attributes of the women who used make-up created a demand for the product among the upper class. These firms were joined by Revlon just before World War II, during the 18th century, there was a high number of incidences of lead-poisoning because of the fashion for red and white lead makeup and powder.
This led to swelling and inflammation of the eyes, attacked tooth enamel, heavy use was known to lead to death. Concealer is commonly used by men, Cosmetics brands release products especially tailored for men, and men are increasingly using them. Thus some sources describe the fruit of species of the genus Persea, one definition of berry requires the endocarp to be less than 2 mm thick, other fruits with a stony endocarp being drupes. In marginal cases, terms such as drupaceous or drupe-like may be used, the term stone fruit can be a synonym for drupe or, more typically, it can mean just the fruit of the genus Prunus.
Freestone refers to a drupe having a stone which can be removed from the flesh with ease, the flesh is not attached to the stone and does not need to be cut to free the stone. Freestone varieties of fruits are preferred for uses that require removal of the stone. Freestone plums are preferred for making homegrown prunes, and freestone sour cherries are preferred for making pies, clingstone refers to a drupe having a stone which cannot easily be removed from the flesh. The flesh is attached strongly to the stone and must be cut to free the stone, clingstone varieties of fruits in the genus Prunus are preferred as table fruit and for jams, because the flesh of clingstone fruits tends to be more tender and juicy throughout.
Tryma is a term for such nut-like drupes that are difficult to categorize. Hickory nuts and walnuts in the Juglandaceae family grow within a husk, these fruits are technically drupes or drupaceous nuts. Many drupes, with their sweet, fleshy outer layer, attract the attention of animals as a food, and the plant population benefits from the resulting dispersal of its seeds.
The endocarp is sometimes dropped after the part is eaten, but is often swallowed, passing through the digestive tract. This passage through the tract can reduce the thickness of the endocarp. The process is known as scarification, typical drupes include apricots, olives, peaches, plums, cherries, mangoes and amlas.
The coconut is also a drupe, but the mesocarp is fibrous or dry, so this type of fruit is classified as a simple dry, unlike other drupes, the coconut seed is unlikely to be dispersed by being swallowed by fauna, due to its large size. It can, however, float extremely long distances across oceans, bramble fruits are aggregates of drupelets 4. Hydroelectricity — Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In hydropower generated Hydropower is produced in countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower inChina is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with TWh of production inrepresenting The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a source of renewable electricity.
The hydro station consumes no water, unlike coal or gas plants, the average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. With a dam and reservoir it is also a source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be changed up or down very quickly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, Hydropower has been used since ancient times to grind flour and perform other tasks.
The growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well, in the worlds first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William George Armstrong.
It was used to power an arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, in Appleton, Wisconsin, by there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. By there were in the U. The Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land, as the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control, irrigation and navigation.
Federal funding became necessary for development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority.
Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century, Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its power and plenty. Hoover Dams initial 1, MW power station was the worlds largest hydroelectric station in 5. It forms a loop through the southern scenic regions of the Mackenzie Basin and Central Otago. Distances are measured from north to south, for most of its length SH8 is a two-lane single carriageway, with at-grade intersections and property accesses directly off the road, both in rural and urban areas.
The highway leaves SH1 at Washdyke, an suburb of Timaru. From here the route tends westward and rapidly increases in altitude, the highway winds along the valley of the Lindis River, reaching the upper Clutha River not far from Tarras.
From here, the highway close to the eastern shore of the man-made Lake Dunstan before passing the historic town of Cromwell. The highway turns south as it travels through the Cromwell Gorge passing the countrys largest hydroelectric dam, the highway continues along the Clutha Valley through the town of Alexandra and past Lake Roxburgh to the town of Roxburgh.
Much of this part of the journey is past fruit orchards. These two spurs connect the highway with State Highway 6, which lies on the bank of Lake Dunstan. A completely new section was built between Clyde and Cromwell, for SH8B the old bridge crossing the Clutha was replaced with a new two-lane bridge approximately 1. InSH8 had an average daily traffic volume of between 1, vehicles at Bendigo, and 4, vehicles on the Clyde side of Alexandra. Over the eleven sites measured, between 9.
Southern Alps — The Southern Alps are a mountain range extending along much of the length of New Zealands South Island, reaching its greatest elevations near the islands western side.
The term Southern Alps generally refers to the range, although separate names are given to many of the smaller ranges that form part of it. The range includes the South Islands Main Divide, which separates the water catchments of the heavily populated eastern side of the island from those on the west coast. A chain of lakes are found on the eastern side of the ridge from Lake Coleridge in the north to Lake Wakatipu in Otago in the south.
They had previously noted by Abel Tasman inwhose description of the South Islands west coast is often translated as a land uplifted high.
The climate is cold with snow and ice year-round at the highest points, because of its orientation perpendicular to the prevailing westerly winds, the range creates excellent wave soaring conditions for glider pilots.
The town of Omarama, in the lee of the mountains, has gained a reputation for its gliding conditions. The prevailing westerlies also create a pattern known as the Norwest arch, in which moist air is pushed up over the mountains.