The House and Senate Chambers are used under the permission of the current members and Those wishing to speak with a member must meet outside of the chamber. the Youth in Government Dress Code; A single gavel calls the House or Senate to order The House or Senate are referred to as the “OTHER BODY”. The House and Senate meet as one body in _____. a joint session. The ___ is the most powerful leader in the House of Representatives. speaker of the House . Each committee has one or more Chairs and Vice-Chairs. When the House and Senate meet in daily sessions, they assemble in their respective chambers. for the consideration of bills by the full membership of the bodies of both houses.
These officers include a majority leader, minority leader, majority whip, and minority whip. Legislative Sessions The General Assembly meets in regular session beginning in January of each odd-numbered year, and adjourns to reconvene the following even-numbered year for a shorter session.
The regular session of the Senate and House of Representatives is held biennially beginning at The Senate and the House of Representatives meet in their respective chambers on Monday evenings; in the middle of the day usually at 1: The members return to their districts to take care of their affairs and be available to their constituents during the weekend.
During the week, committee meetings are held in the morning and late afternoon. A great deal of the legislative work is done in the committee meetings. A Joint Session would be held to hear invited guests address the General Assembly.
Daily Calendar The Daily Calendar is the daily schedule of business for the consideration of bills by the full membership of the bodies of both houses. The Senate and the House of Representatives make up their own calendars each day for session. The House uses the color yellow for the Calendar and their bill jackets and the Senate uses the color blue for their Senate Calendar and bill jackets.
The House of Representatives and the Senate work as two separate memberships during their daily sessions, but all legislation must pass three readings in each body.
As you face The Capitol, the Senate office buildings are on the right side and the House buildings are on the left side. Thinking about the separate sides, and how House Members and Senators meet in the middle, is helpful in thinking about how "bills" are made into "laws". Each of the two sides of Congress operates separately as bills are introduced by individual or multiple members of each of the two bodies.
The person or persons introducing the bills are called "sponsors". Representatives also called Congressmen or Congresswomen introduce "House Bills", designated by the letters "HR" House Resolution before the number of the bill which is assigned when the bill is "dropped" - literally - in a "hopper" in the House and Senators introduce "Senate Bills" designated by the letter "S" before the number of the bill.
A member of the House of Representatives does not have a say on any Senate bill and a Senator does not have a vote on a House bill. Pay attention to the letter designation before the number to know which one is which! In addition to the original Sponsor sometimes there are two sponsors - ideally a Democrat and a Republican so that a bill is truly bi-partisanMembers of Congress and Senators can show their support for bills in their Chamber by becoming a "Co-Sponsor".
By doing so, legislators are demonstrating their support for a bill to their colleagues. Further, the number of co-sponsors is one measure of the likelihood of a bill being passed when it is brought to a vote.
The difference between a House and Senate Bill: How Legislation Becomes Law
Finally, when a bill is being reviewed by the relevant Committee discussed belowhaving a significant number of co-sponsors incentivizes the Committee to prioritize that bill over less popular bills. Bills on each side see? During floor debate, amendments may be offered that change or add to the bill. After debate on a bill is concluded, and voting has taken place on all amendments offered, the bill is up for final passage.
Guide to the NC General Assembly | NCAFP
In the House, voting on amendments and final passage may occur by a voice vote, although a roll-call vote is the normal procedure on major bills. House members vote during roll calls by using the electronic voting system in the House chamber.
Forty-four voting stations are located throughout the chamber. Members cast their votes by inserting special identification cards in a slot on the voting device and pushing the yea or nay buttons.
With this system, House members can cast votes in a short time. The Senate has no similar system; senators respond to roll calls by answering yea or nay when the clerk calls their names in alphabetical order.
Bills passed by a majority vote of the members of the House and Senate are sent to the president for approval. If the president vetoes a bill, the disapproval may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of both houses.
If the House and the Senate pass bills in different forms, a joint conference committee consisting of representatives and senators is appointed to work out the differences. Agreements of a conference committee must, in turn, be approved by both houses.
Guide to the NC General Assembly
Congress and the Executive The legislative and executive branches of government are separate and independent, but Congress and the executive do not work in isolation from each other. Only members of Congress may introduce legislation, but the president provides leadership to Congress by recommending a legislative program. He thus influences both Congress's agenda and the substantive content of its day-to-day policy decisions. Congress, however, scrutinizes presidential proposals and often changes them substantially.
Moreover, Congress itself initiates much important legislation. The most important leverage the Congress has over the executive stems from its fiscal powers. Executive agencies may not spend money unless the expenditure has been authorized and appropriated by Congress. Congress greatly strengthened its budgetary powers by the Budget and Impoundment Control Act ofwhich provided for a congressional budget, created new committees to consider overall budget outlays, and established the Congressional Budget Office.
The law also limited the president's power to rescind or impound the spending of money appropriated by Congress. Initiatives in foreign policy usually are taken by the president, but Congress is also involved in the making of foreign policy through its power to tax and spend, to finance foreign policies, to declare war, and to ratify treaties which require the approval of two-thirds of the Senate.
Congress placed unusual limitations on the conduct of foreign relations in when it passed the War Powers Act, restricting the president's authority to commit U. In various other ways, Congress influences the work of the executive branch. Senate confirmation is required for presidential nominations of cabinet officials, ambassadors, federal judges, and certain other officials. Congressional committees investigate executive agencies and officials and regularly review the administrative implementation of congressionally enacted programs.
Ultimately, Congress has the power to remove the president from office through impeachment, a process in which the House investigates alleged wrongdoing and votes on the charges, and the Senate tries the president on these charges. InAndrew Johnson was impeached by the House and tried by the Senate, narrowly escaping conviction. Nixon resigned in after the House Judiciary Committee recommended impeachment charges. Bill Clinton was impeached December on charges of perjury and obstruction of justice but won acquittal in the Senate by a comfortable margin.
From time to time Congress sets up special committees to investigate subjects that do not fall directly in the jurisdiction of its standing committees. Its power of investigation is considered one of the essential functions of Congress. Special committees have been created to investigate criminal charges against members, to study social and economic problems, to probe into unethical political activities, and to publicize controversial issues. Famous special committees were the House Committee on Un-American Activities, set up in to investigate fascist, Communist, and other extremist political organizations, the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities commonly known as the Watergate committeeset up inand the House and Senate select committees investigating the Iran-contra affair in In the s, Congress accelerated its use of the legislative veto, a device originated in the s by which provisions were written into a law requiring the executive to seek congressional approval before taking actions authorized under that law.
By the s, legislative veto provisions had been included in more than laws, including the War Powers Act.
Congress of the United States | Scholastic
This practice came under mounting attack from presidents and other executive branch officials, and eventually it was challenged in the federal courts. In the U. Supreme Court ruled that the legislative veto was an unconstitutional intrusion by the legislature into the executive sphere. A line-item veto, by which a president could veto isolated portions of a law, was enacted by Congress in but ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in Congress and the Public Members of Congress live and work under great pressure.
House members, whose terms are only two years, must start planning for their next campaign as soon as they are elected to the first one.
Members commonly travel weekly to their districts, maintain staff and offices there, send newsletters to their constituents, and campaign vigorously for reelection even when their districts are considered "safe" seats.
They make extensive use of free postal services and the printed reports of the Congressional Record to show their constituents that they are active in their behalf.