Prepositions | Grammar Rules
You look like you're angry. You look as if you're angry. OR as though Some speakers and writers, to avoid embarrassment, use as when they mean like. The following incorrect sentence came from a grammar guide: They are considered as any other English words. They are considered as any other English words would be.
They are considered to be like any other English words. Do not use as unless there is a verb involved. I, as most people, try to use good grammar. I, like most people, try to use good grammar. I, as most people do, try to use good grammar. NOTE The rule distinguishing like from as, as if, as though, and the way is increasingly ignored, but English purists still insist upon it. The preposition of should never be used in place of the helping verb have.Improve Your Vocabulary: KNOW, MEET, MEET WITH, or MEET UP?
I should have done it. I should of done it. It is a good practice to follow different with the preposition from.
Most traditionalists avoid different than. Although it is an overstatement to call different than incorrect, it remains polarizing: A is different than B comes across as sloppy to a lot of literate readers.
If you can replace different than with different from without having to rewrite the rest of the sentence, why not do so? You're different than I am. You're different from me. Use into rather than in to express motion toward something. Use in to tell the location. I swam in the pool. I walked into the house.
I looked into the matter. I dived in the water. I dived into the water. In some dialects of English, the use of shall as future marker is viewed as archaic. According to this rule, when expressing futurity and nothing more, the auxiliary shall is to be used with first person subjects I and weand will is to be used in other instances.
Using will with the first person or shall with the second or third person is asserted to indicate some additional meaning in addition to plain futurity. In practice, however, this rule is often not observed — the two auxiliaries are used interchangeably, with will being far more common than shall. This is discussed in more detail in the following sections.
Prescriptivist distinction[ edit ] According to Merriam Webster's Dictionary of English Usage the distinction between shall and will as future markers arose from the practice of Latin teaching in English schools in the 14th century. It was customary to use will to translate the Latin velle meaning to wish, want or intend ; this left shall which had no other equivalent in Latin to translate the Latin future tense. This practice kept shall alive in the role of future marker; it is used consistently as such in the Middle English Wycliffe's Bible.
However, in the common language it was will that was becoming predominant in that role. Chaucer normally uses will to indicate the future, regardless of grammatical person. An influential proponent of the prescriptive rule that shall is to be used as the usual future marker in the first person was John Wallis.
In Grammatica Linguae Anglicanae he wrote: Fowler wrote in his book The King's English, regarding the rules for using shall vs. Nonetheless, even among speakers the majority who do not follow the rule about using shall as the unmarked form in the first person, there is still a tendency to use shall and will to express different shades of meaning reflecting aspects of their original Old English senses.
Thus shall is used with the meaning of obligation, and will with the meaning of desire or intention. An illustration of the supposed contrast between shall and will when the prescriptive rule is adhered to appeared in the 19th century,  and has been repeated in the 20th century  and in the 21st: They looked at each other hard a moment.
An example is provided by the famous speech of Winston Churchill: Whether or not the above-mentioned prescriptive rule shall for the unmarked future in the first person is adhered to, there are certain meanings in which either will or shall tends to be used rather than the other.
Some of these have already been mentioned see the Specific uses section. However, there are also cases in which the meaning being expressed combines plain futurity with some additional implication; these can be referred to as "coloured" uses of the future markers.
Thus shall may be used particularly in the second and third persons to imply a command, promise or threat made by the speaker i. You shall regret it before long. Another, generally archaic, use of shall is in certain dependent clauses with future reference, as in "The prize is to be given to whoever shall have done the best. On the other hand, will can be used in the first person to emphasize the willingness, desire or intention of the speaker: Most speakers have will as the future marker in any case, but when the meaning is as above, even those who follow or are influenced by the prescriptive rule would tend to use will rather than the shall that they would use with a first person subject for the uncolored future.
The division of uses of will and shall is somewhat different in questions than in statements; see the following section for details.
Questions[ edit ] In questions, the traditional prescriptive usage is that the auxiliary used should be the one expected in the answer. Hence in enquiring factually about the future, one could ask: To use will instead would turn the question into a request.
meaning - "Get to do something" - English Language & Usage Stack Exchange
In practice, however, shall is almost never used in questions of this type. To mark a factual question as distinct from a request, the going-to future or just the present tense can be used: The chief use of shall in questions is with a first person subject I or weto make offers and suggestions, or request suggestions or instructions: Shall I open a window?
Where shall we go today? What shall I do next?
This is common in the UK and other parts of the English-speaking world; it is also found in the United States, but there should is often a less marked alternative. Normally the use of will in such questions would change the meaning to a simple request for information: However, for many speakers in the United States, the will form can also be used as an offer in which case "Am I going to play goalkeeper?
The above meaning of shall is generally confined to direct questions with a first person subject. In the case of a reported question even if not reported in the past tenseshall is likely to be replaced by should or another modal verb such as might: Where will tomorrow's match be played?
However, it is sometimes used to mean "may" or "can". The most famous example of both of these uses of the word "shall" is the United States Constitution. Claims that "shall" is used to denote a fact, or is not used with the above different meanings, have caused discussions and have significant consequences for interpreting the text's intended meaning. Most requirement specifications use the word shall to denote something that is required, while reserving the will for simple statement about the future especially since "going to" is typically seen as too informal for legal contexts.
However, some documents deviate from this convention and use the words shall, will, and should to denote the strength of the requirement. Some requirement specifications will define the terms at the beginning of the document.
Shall is usually used to state a device or system's requirements. For example, "The new generator will be used to power the operations tent. The legal reference Words and Phrases dedicates 76 pages to summarizing hundreds of lawsuits that centered around the meaning of the word shall. When referencing a legal or technical requirement, Words and Phrases instead favors must while reserving should for recommendations.
In some of their uses they can still be identified as past or conditional forms of those verbs, but they have also developed some specific meanings of their own. Independent uses[ edit ] The main use of should in modern English is as a synonym of ought toexpressing quasi-obligation, appropriateness, or expectation it cannot be replaced by would in these meanings.